Day 2 :
Professor, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, USA
Time : 9:30-10:10
Don S Schalch has completed his MD from the University of Cincinnati, OH, in 1960. He completed his Medicine Residency and Fellowship in Endocrinology and Metabolism from the University of Rochester, NY, in 1964. He was a Visiting Scientist at Erasmus University in Rotterdam and at Kantonspital in Zürich in 1972-73, and joined the University of Colorado Medical School Faculty in Denver, CO in 1974. In 1982, he became the Chief of Endocrinology at the University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health. He has published 101 papers, has been a reviewer for 3 journals, and became an Emeritus Professor since 1999.
Availability of various foods is an important determinant of what people buy and eat, thus impacting on their health. This is illustrated in our studies of two cities: one large; i.e., Cleveland, Ohio, replete in "food swamps," and one small; i.e., Madison, Wisconsin, site of many "food deserts," food swamp which is readily-accessible convenience stores and fast food restaurants; food desert where it is difficult-to-buy fresh fruits and vegetables. Food swamps and deserts often co-exist. Availability of nutritious food is one determinant of people’s diet; others are cost, cultural, racial, ethnic, habits, and inadequate transportation in low-income areas. Fast foods in restaurants and junk foods in convenience stores, rich in carbohydrates, fats and sugar, are associated with increased risk of being overweight/obese and increased prevalence of type 2 diabetes, hypertension, heart disease, and cancer. Recent WHO European Region report indicated poor diet, overweight and obesity which contribute to a large proportion of cardiovascular diseases and cancer, the two main killers in the Region. Lack of essential nutrients/minerals, lead to growth impairment, organ dysfunction, and failure in maintaining normal nitrogen balance in the body. Using housing- and food-outlet data (Cleveland) and UW APL, UWSMPH, and WI Depts. HS/U&RP data (Madison), employing GIS, food swamps in the former and food deserts in the latter have been mapped, corresponding to areas of poverty, people of color, and increased prevalence and poorly-controlled diabetes. Emphasizing complexity of poor diet choices, a refrigerated 40-foot trailer offering fresh fruits and vegetables in 8 Madison food deserts was unsustainable after 2 years because initial consumer interest declined.
Des Moines University, USA
Keynote: Novel mechanistic insights into the actions of the G-protein coupled estrogen receptor as a moderator of cardiovascular health
Time : 10:10-11:00
Quang Kim Tran received an MD from the University of Medicine and Pharmacy at Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam and a PhD in Vascular Biology and Clinical Cardiology Fellowship from Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, Japan. He pursued Post-doctoral Training in the School of Biological Sciences, University of Missouri–Kansas City, USA, where he later became a Research Instructor. He is now an Associate Professor in the Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Des Moines University College of Osteopathic Medicine, Iowa, USA. He has served as President of the Iowa Chapter of the American Physiological Society and as Reviewer for various scientific journals in the cardiovascular field.
Plasma estrogen level is closely related to cardiovascular health. Estrogen exerts complex effects that are both dependent and independent on transcriptional activities and are mediated by at least 3 estrogen receptors. The novel G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER) has been shown to participate in many cardiovascular functions such as the control of fat metabolism, insulin resistance and glucose tolerance, and vascular tone and cardiac diastolic functions. However, the regulatory inputs of GPER are not well understood. Both Ca2+ entry and Ca2+ efflux are essential in shaping intracellular Ca2+ signals important for cardiovascular functions. Calmodulin, the ubiquitous transducer of Ca2+ signals, is important for the activities of more than 100 intracellular proteins, yet is insufficiently expressed for all its binding sites, rendering a shortage for calmodulin across cardiovascular tissues. Factors that control Ca2+ influx, Ca2+ efflux and Ca2+-dependent calmodulin signals thus plays important roles in the regulation of cardiovascular activities. Data will be presented on the effects and multiple underlying mechanisms of GPER in the control of Ca2+ efflux, Ca2+ entry and the role of GPER in forming a feed-forward loop that regulates calmodulin expression and functional linkage in the network of calmodulin-dependent proteins in cardiovascular system. A mechanistic model for the role of GPER as a moderator of cardiovascular functions will be presented. The data and summative model encourage therapeutic exploitation of GPER activation and expression in the management of cardiovascular morbidity.