Gabriela Correia de Faria Santarém completed his master\'s degree at the age of 33 years in the University of São Paulo Medical School and is a PhD student at the same University. She has published more articles related to obesity in renowned journals
Obesity is associated with mobility reduction due to mechanical factors and excessive body fat. The six-minute walk test (6MWT) has been used to assess functional capacity in severe obesity. Objective: To determine the association of BMI, total and segmental body composition with distance walked (6MWD) during the six-minute walk test (6MWT) according to gender and obesity grade. Setting: University of São Paulo Medical School, Brazil; Public Practice. Methods: Functional capacity was assessed by 6MWD and body composition (%) by bioelectrical impedance analysis in 90 patients. Results: The mean 6MWD was 514.9 ± 50.3 m for both genders. The male group (M: 545.2 ± 46.9 m) showed a 6MWD higher (p = 0.002) than the female group (F: 505.6 ± 47.9 m). The morbid obese group (MO: 524.7 ± 44.0 m) also showed a 6MWD higher (p = 0.014) than the super obese group (SO: 494.2 ± 57.0 m). There was a positive relationship between 6MWD and fat free mass (FFM), FFM of upper limps (FFM_UL), trunk (FFM_TR) and lower limbs (FFM_LL). Female group presented a positive relationship between 6MWD and FFM, FFM_UL and FFM_LL and male group presented a positive relationship between 6MWD and FFM_TR. In morbid obese group there was a positive relationship between 6MWD with FFM, FFM_UL, FFM_TR and FFM_LL. The super obese group presented a positive relationship between 6MWD with FFM, FFM_TR and FFM_LL. Conclusions: Total and segmental FFM is associated with a better walking capacity than BMI.
Susmita Chandra has completed her Ph.D. during 2011 from Jadavpur University, Kolkata, India. She is working as a postdoctoral fellow at Cell Biology and Physiology Division of Indian Institute of Chemical biology. She has ten published papers in reputed journals and has presented her research contribution in a number of national and international conferences. Her previous and current research contribution encompasses mainly different areas of drug development studies.
Macrophage secretory products contribute to the pathogenesis of chronic liver diseases by sensing danger signals from damaged cells under pathogenic inflammatory conditions like fatty liver or infection. Liver resident Kupffer cells activate inflammosome and caspase-1 to proteolyte cytokines IL-1β and IL-18. The endogenous interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra), secreted by activated monocytes and macrophages binds to IL-1 receptors & prevents IL-1 from sending a signal to that cell. Our study is designed to understand the molecular basis of inflammatory condition developed during fatty liver diseases which regulates hepatocyte fat metabolism. Cultured human THP-1 cells were differentiated into macrophages and stimulated by LPS to treat with BSA-Palmitate. The cytokines in THP-1 conditioned media(CM) were profiled by ELISA or HPLC. HepG2 cells were treated with the CM & BSA-Palmitate. Fatty acid oxidation(FAO) was measured in HepG2. Fat deposition was qualitatively determined by Oil Red O and Triglyceride(TG) accumulation assay. Total RNA from HepG2 cells were isolated to profile gene expressions by RT qPCR. Some expressed proteins were determined by qPCR and immunoblotting. Recombinant IL-1 decreased FAO which was dose-dependently reversed by IL-1Ra in HepG2 cells. IL-1Ra enriched CM from LPS stimulated THP-1 macrophage increased rate of FAO and prevented IL-1 dependent decrease in FAO. The intracellular triglyceride levels were accordingly modulated. Thus, IL-1Ra has an important role in controlling the fat accumulation and its metabolism in HepG2 cells. Recombinant IL-1Ra can play a potential role in blocking inflammasome induced IL-1 dependent liver inflammation and combat the inflammatory condition developed during fatty liver diseases.