Reem Alshenifi is a medical student from the Taibah University from the Saudi Arabia Her present research is based on the overweight obesity people were suffering with high metabolic risk factors in the Saudi individuals. She is still waiting for the publication.
Objective: Neck circumference (NC) is a marker of upper body subcutaneous fat and presents an extra cardiovascular risk beyond waist circumference (WC). There are no studies looked at the NC as a measure of cardiometabolic risk from Saudi Arabia. The aims of this study are to determine the utility of NC as an indicator of overweight/obesity among Saudi subjects and to investigate its usefulness as a predictor of cardiometabolic risk. Methods: A total of 785 adult participants aged ≥ 18 years, 370 men and 415 women were recruited during one of public health awareness program at Medinah, Saudi Arabia. Body mass index (BMI), WC were measured and compared with neck circumference. Presence of cardiometabolic risks were assessed by a questionnaire. Blood pressure and random blood glucose were measured. Pearson’s correlation, receiver operating characteristic, Chi-square analysis and independent t-test, were analyzed to evaluate the association of the NC to other anthropometric indices and to cardio-metabolic risks. Discussion: Our results showed that 68% of the men and 55.3% of women of the participants were overweight or obese, Which might be due to the fact that the prevalence of overweight, BMI ≥25 in Saudi Arabia is 71.9 (65.7-77.7) in female and 68 (61.2-74.2) in male aged +18 years according to the WHO. Concerning the conventional anthropometric measures of obesity, the results revealed a significant positive association between NC and BMI, weight and WC, which was in consistent with previous studies. In contrast to the other studies which revealed no correlation between nick circumference and age, our study shows a positive association between NC and age. Characteristically, analysis of the results showed that the (AUC) for NC which is a part of UBSF and central obesity indicate a relation between them with less invasive procedure in comparison to using the CT. Concerning the screening measure of the random blood sugar, systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure in men and women a significant positive correlation was revealed except for random blood sugar and diastolic blood pressure in women. We observed that a neck circumference of ≥39.25 cm for men and ≥34.75 cm for women might be considered the cutoff value determining the subjects with central obesity among Saudi population. Greater values were found in men than in women, which was similar to other studies. These cutoff levels of NC were associated with significant increase of individuals risk for T2DM, dyslipidemia and hypertension with odd ratio of 2.6, 2.6 and 1.9 respectively. This can be explained by the Frequencies of cardiometabolic diseases subjects with elevated NC which is higher than those with normal NC. Conclusion: NC can be used as a screening tool for overweight/obesity. It is positively related with BMI and WC and can be used as indicator of cardiometabolic risk. A neck circumference ≥39.25 cm in men and ≥34.75 cm in women might be considered the cutoff value to identify overweight/ obesity in Saudi individuals.
Moaz Zulali is an MSc Nutritional Science Graduate of Northumbria University in Newcastle upon Tyne. He is a BSc Biology Graduate of College of Education (Scientific Section) of King Abdulaziz University. He interested in physiology and nutrition science. Currently, he is studying a PhD of Physiology in Institute for Cell and Molecular Biosciences at Newcastle University.
Obesity is one of the most important issues in global health. Orlistat is the only approved pharmaceutical treatment for obesity. However, side effects may appear in individuals who use Orlistat such as fecal incontinence, oily spotting, and increased defecation frequency. Other lipase inhibitors derived from natural products such as seaweed are being investigated. However, their side effects on lower bowel function are likely to be similar to Orlistat. In order to reduce GI side effects, we are investigating synergistic effects of fibrous alginate and seaweed extracts. Three types of alginate were added to 3 different F. vesiculosus extracts, and the ability of the mixtures to inhibit lipase activity was tested. A modification of the method of was used to determine the inhibitory effects of the mixtures of F. vesiculosus extracts and alginates on lipase activity. This study showed that all Fucus vesiculosus extracts tested can inhibit lipase activity. All the extracts had a similar inhibitory effect on lipase activity. Alginate manugel DMB was the best inhibitor on lipase activity assay followed by alginate PH157 and LFR5/60, respectively. The results showed that the synergistic effect between F. vesiculosus extracts and alginates (PH157 and LFR5/60) improved the lipase inhibition. However, the mixtures of F. vesiculosus extracts and alginate manugel DMB did not show any improvement in lipase inhibition. Further studies need to be carried out in order to characterize the mechanism of F. vesiculosus extracts and alginate mixtures on lipase activity.