Yuan Hu has received his MD from Guangzhou Medical University (1983) and MS (1990) in Pharmaceutical Sciences from St. John’s University, New York. He is a Research Microbiologist at U.S. Food & Drug Administration. He is also a licensed Clinical Laboratory Director in New York State. He has published over 50 peer-reviewed articles, books chapter and abstracts.
Noroviruses (NoVs) are highly infectious and cause acute gastroenteritis in humans. NoVs have high levels of genetic sequence diversities, which lead to difficulties in designing robust universal primers to efficiently amplify specific viral genomes for molecular analysis. We here described the practicality of sequence-independent amplification combined with DNA microarray analysis for simultaneous detection and genotyping of human NoVs in fecal specimens. We showed that single primer isothermal linear amplification (Ribo-SPIA) of genogroup I (GI) and genogroup II (GII) NoVs could be run through the same amplification protocol without the need to design and use any virus specific primers. Related virus could be subtyped by the unique pattern of hybridization with the amplified product to the microarray. By testing 22 clinical fecal specimens obtained from acute gastroenteritis cases as blinded samples, two were GI positive and 18 were GII positive as well as 2 negative for NoVs. NoV GII positive specimen was also identified as having co-occurrence of hepatitis A virus. The study showed that there was 100% concordance for positive NoV detection at genogroup level between the results of Ribo-SPIA/microarray and the phylogenetic analysis of viral sequences of the capsid gene. This efficient broad range microarray detection method represents a valuable tool for norovirus study and outbreaks investigation.
Hee Wook Ryu has completed his PhD from KAIST and Postdoctoral studies from University of Minnesota. He is currently a Professor at Soongsil University, South Korea. He has published more than 70 papers in reputed journals.
Trametes versicolor CBR43 was isolated from Chunma Mountain, South Korea. The fungus had high activities of laccase and Mn dependent peroxidase whereas its lignin peroxidase activity was relatively low. T. versicolor CBR43 could decolorize 200 mg/L of acid dyes (red 114, blue 62, orange 7 and black 172), reactive dyes (red 120, blue 4, orange 16 and black 5) and disperse dyes (red 1, orange 3 and black). Except acid orange 7, T. versicolor CBR43 decolorized more than 90% of acid and reactive dyes within 6 days in the PDB medium. This fungus decolorized 67% of acid orange 7 within 9 days. The decolorization efficiencies for disperse dyes were 51, ~80% at 9th day. The maximum rates of dye decolorization in the cell-free culture broth of T. versicolor CBR43 were 1,410, 44.7, 41.2 and 0.19 μmol L-1 min-1 for acid blue 62, acid black 175, reactive blue 4 and acid red 114, respectively. The inhibition effect of NaCl, Zn(II) and Cd(II) on the dye decolorization has been quantitatively compared using the half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) indicating the concentration of an inhibitor that is required for 50% inhibition. Based on the values of IC50, the dye decolorization in the cell-free culture broth of CBR43 was most severely inhibited by Cd(II), and the inhibition effect of NaCl was relatively low. The information on dye decolorization rates and IC50 can be utilized to design for the development of a dye wastewater treatment process employing T. versicolor CBR43 and its operating factors.