Theme: Microbiology: A Spectrum of Opportunities

Microbiologists 2017

Microbiologists 2017

With the success of Microbiologists 2016, held at Portland, USA during August 15-17, 2016, Conference Series LLC feels proud and honoured in inviting the contributors across the globe to its premier "4th World Microbiologists Annual Conference" to be held during June 22-23, 2017 at Philadelphia, USA.

This year's meeting will showcase the role of microbes in different ecosystems by relating them with the revolutionary science in diverse areas of microbiology through a wide range of scientific sessions. The meeting is all set to be graced by world-renowned speakers who will illuminate modernized microbiology techniques and updates. All those who are either starting your career or an old-time microbiologist can attend this conference to learn, hook-up and get galvanized. We are looking forward to welcome you all in Philadelphia.


Microbiology has become increasingly important to human society. It has emerged as one of the most important branches of life sciences. As microbes practically affect all activities of our life like, food, clothing, shelter, health hygiene etc., microbiology has made vast progressive strides in all these fields in little less than a century to improve the quality of our life. Infectious diseases have almost been conquered by new drugs, quality of agricultural crops improved by using techniques of genetic engineering, new varieties of wines, liquors have been produced- all these are possible only because of microbiology. All these will make us wonder how our life would have been without the knowledge of microbiology.

Track 1: Infectious Diseases

Medical microbiology deals with the body's response to invading microorganisms. Bacteriology, virology, mycology, parasitology, the major subfields of microbiology are first covered with the general concepts of cytology and physiology of different microbes and then with major pathogens of humans. Stress on the mechanisms of infection characteristic of that type of microorganism, provide the audience with a framework for understanding rather than memorizing the clinical behaviour of the pathogens. The concepts and emerging trends in pathogenesis of microbes and their virulence mechanisms, their genetic background provide a deep insight into the understanding of disease establishment and progression. Recent research on nematodes and protozoans will contribute in making advancements in the emerging studies. Knowledge on parasites, diversified roles and their interactions with the host will bring awareness on the importance and existence of extremely minute organisms.  The next section comprises of introduction to the Polymicrobial diseases and the tropical diseases, arranged by organ system and provides transition for clinical considerations. Microbial generations are smarter enough to bring about a change in their resistance patterns, thereby paving a way for development of newer strategies and emerging trends in combating the microbial infections. There has been an enormous modification in the diagnostic methods and tools starting from the basic nucleic acid probing to circulating biomarker studies.

Track 2: Epidemiology and Pathogenesis

Epidemiology is the study of the causes, statistics and health effects of disease conditions in a particular population. Epidemiology shapes policy decisions and proof-based actions through identification of risk factors for disease and targets for preventive health. Epidemiologists with the help of study design, collection, and statistical analysis of data, and by interpreting and disseminating results which include peer review and occasional systematic review. Epidemiology helps to develop methodology to be used in clinical research studies, and, to a lesser extent, basic research in the biological sciences. Epidemiological studies involve an introduction, entire historical background, surveillance data sources, laboratory diagnosis, the biological characteristics of the organism, mechanisms and routes of transmission, pathogenesis and immunity, host response, and finally prevention, control and treatment. Emerging molecular methods are vast for future efforts. Traditional case control and cohort studies will be needed to define the action of such pathogens in disease causality.

Track 3: Public Health

Public Health science involves applied sciences that include the use of science, technology, biomedicine in healthcare. Diagnostics methods like physical examination, medical history, medical imaging cover the basics of first diagnosis of illness which follow further laboratory diagnosis of patient blood for any infectious agents. Health care is considered in the application of the knowledge which acquires through health science. Health care can be provided through a variety of fields, including pharmacy, dentistry and medicine fie

Track 4: Beneficial Microorganisms

As the knowledge of bacteria and yeast-chemical behaviors grew, other biotechnological uses for the microbes were found. A few examples include the use of the bacterium Lactobacillus acidophilus to produce yogurt, the exploitation of a number of different bacteria to produce a variety of cheeses, and the fermentation of cabbage to produce sauerkraut. In the agricultural sector, the discovery of the ability of Rhizobium spp. to convert elemental nitrogen to a form that was useable by a growing plant, led to the use of the microorganism as a living fertilizer that grew in association with the plant species.

Track 5: Genetic Engineering and rDNA technology

Microbial genetics is concerned with the transmission of hereditary characters in microorganisms. It plays a unique role in developing the fields of molecular and cell biology. It has also found applications in medical, agricultural, food and pharmaceutical industries. Microbes are ideally suited for combined biochemical and genetic studies, and proved to be successful in providing information on genetic codes and gene regulations. After the discovery of DNA transfer, bacteria were of great interest because of their higher rate of reproduction and mutation than other larger organisms. Conjugation, transformation, and transduction are the important methods for mapping the genes on bacterial chromosomes. Recombinant DNA technology, selection, mutation, reproductive cloning, and use of plasmids form a part of genetic engineering tools. Metagenomics is the study of genetic material derived from environmental samples. Microbial genomics can be used to create new biofuels. Pathogenicity islands are discrete genetic loci that encode more virulent factors. 

Track 6: Microbes in Pharma Industry

Pharma Microbiology includes the study of microorganisms associated with the manufacture of pharmaceuticals e.g. decreasing the number of microorganisms in a process environment, removing microorganisms and microbial residues like endotoxin and exotoxin from water and other starting materials, and confirming the finished pharmaceutical product is free of contamination i.e., sterile. Other important aspects of Pharmaceutical Microbiology include the research and development of antibiotic resistance, anti-infective agents, the use of microorganisms to detect carcinogenic and mutagenic activity in expected drugs, and the use of microorganisms in the manufacture of pharmaceutical products like human growth hormone and insulin. Pharmaceutical microbiology also focuses on drug safety. Pathogenic bacteria, fungi (moulds and yeasts) and toxins produced by microorganisms are all possible contaminants of pharmaceutical products or medicines. Pharmaceutical Microbiology also focuses to determine how a product will react in cases of contamination.

Track 7: Antimicrobial agents

Antimicrobials are agents killing or inhibiting the growth of microorganisms and are grouped as antibacterial, antivirals, antifungals and antiparasitics. Antibacterial used to treat bacterial infections are termed as antibacterial, treating virus are termed as antivirals and hence antifungals and antiparasitics are respectively for fungi and parasites. The toxicity of antibacterial to humans and other animals is generally low. Antimicrobial pesticides control growth of microbes by the use of disinfection, sanitation, or reduction of development and to protect industrial processes or systems, surfaces, water, or other chemical substances from contamination, spoiling caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa, algae.

Track 8: Biotechnology and Bioremediation

Biodegradation is nature's way of recycling wastes, or breaking down organic matter into nutrients that can be used by other organisms. "Degradation" means decay, and the "bio-" prefix means that the decay is carried out by a huge assortment of bacteria, fungi, insects, worms, and other organisms that eat dead material and recycle it into new forms. In nature, there is no waste because everything gets recycled. The waste products from one organism become the food for others, providing nutrients and energy while breaking down the waste organic matter. Some organic materials will break down much faster than others, but all will eventually decay. By harnessing these natural forces of biodegradation, people can reduce wastes and clean up some types of environmental contaminants. Through composting, we accelerate natural biodegradation and convert organic wastes to a valuable resource. Wastewater treatment also accelerates natural forces of biodegradation. In this case the purpose is to break down organic matter so that it will not cause pollution problems when the water is released into the environment. Through bioremediation, microorganisms are used to clean up oil spills and other types of organic pollution. Composting and bioremediation provide many possibilities for student research. 

Track 9: Biofilms

Microorganisms attach to surfaces and develop biofilms. Biofilm-associated cells can be differentiated from their suspended counterparts by generation of an extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) matrix, reduced growth rates, and the up- and down- regulation of specific genes. Attachment is a complex process regulated by diverse characteristics of the growth medium, substratum, and cell surface. An established biofilm structure comprises microbial cells and EPS, has a defined architecture, and provides an optimal environment for the exchange of genetic material between cells. Cells may also communicate via quorum sensing, which may in turn affect biofilm processes such as detachment. Biofilms have great importance for public health because of their role in certain infectious diseases and importance in a variety of device-related infections. A greater understanding of biofilm processes should lead to novel, effective control strategies for biofilm control and a resulting improvement in patient management.

Track 10: Fungal Infections and Toxicology Studies

Mycotoxins are the secondary metabolites that are produced by filamentous fungi. It is capable of causing disease and death in humans and other animals. Because of their pharmacological activity, some mycotoxins or mycotoxin derivatives have found use as antibiotics, growth promotants, and other kinds of drugs; still others have been implicated as chemical warfare agents. This review focuses on the most important ones associated with human and veterinary diseases, including aflatoxin, citrinin, ergot akaloids, fumonisins, ochratoxin a, patulin, trichothecenes, and zearalenone. Mycoses are the best-known diseases of fungal etiology, but toxic secondary metabolites produced by saprophytic species are also an important health hazard. The term mycotoxin is an artificial rubric used to describe pharmacologically active mold metabolites characterized by vertebrate toxicity. 

Track 11: Parasitic Diseases

Parasitology is the study of parasites and their host’s relationship. Medical parasitology deals with the parasites infecting humans, the diseases caused by them, clinical pathology and the response generated by humans against them. It is also concerned with the various methods of their diagnosis, treatment and finally their prevention & control. A parasite is an organism that lives on or within other organism called the host. Medical parasitology also involves drug development, epidemiological studies and study of zoonosis. it is an interdisciplinary field, influenced by microbiology, biochemistry, immunology and other life sciences field. Parasites survive in the host of a highly immune-potent immune system. Vector-borne infections are parasitic infections transferred by the bite of infected arthropod species, such as mosquitoes, ticks, bugs, sandflies, and blackflies. Arthropods are cold-blooded and sensitive to climate factors. Resistant parasitic worms are having resistance against other infectious agents too, although the mechanisms of resistance in protozoan infections are not yet understood. About 50% of the positive malaria cases are from P. vivax. Current developments in new diagnostic tools, have opened new aspects for a huge improvement in parasite detection. There are some parasitic infection like cryptosporidiosis, there is no effective chemotherapy.

Track 12: Diagnosis, Treatment and Prevention

Identification of an infectious agent for a particular illness can be as done as clinical presentation; such as in gastrointestinal disease and skin infections. Diagnosis of infectious disease is mostly done by consultation of patient's medical history and a physical examination. Microbiology laboratory plays a vital role where diagnosis and final interpretation of causative agents are done by experts. Microbiological culture is the first method for isolation of infectious diseases in the laboratory followed by biochemical and by advanced serological assays and through polymerase reactions. Experts often make treatment as a step of prevention to the patient’s physician depending on the strain of microbe and its antibiotic resistances.


Importance and Scope:

Microbiology has become increasingly important to human society. It has emerged as one of the most important branches of life sciences. As microbes practically affect all activities of our life like, food, clothing, shelter, health hygiene etc., microbiology has made vast progressive strides in all these fields in little less than a century to improve the quality of our life. Infectious diseases have almost been conquered by new drugs, quality of agricultural crops improved by using techniques of genetic engineering, new varieties of wines, liquors have been produced- all these are possible only because of microbiology. All these will make us wonder how our life would have been without the knowledge of microbiology.

Why Philadelphia??

Philadelphia is the biggest city in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania and it is only associated city-county, the fifth-most-populous city in the United States, and the essential of the sixth-largest metropolitan area in the country. Climatic conditions fall in the northern periphery of the humid subtropical climate zone. Summers are typically hot and muggy, fall and spring are generally mild, and winter is cold. Snowfall is highly variable, with some winters bringing only light snow and others bringing several major snowstorms, with the normal seasonal snowfall standing at 22.4 in (57 cm); snow in November or April is rare, and a sustained snow cover is rare. Highlights of Philadelphia: Philadelphia is home to many national historical sites that relate to the founding of the United States. Independence National Historical Park is the centre of these historical landmarks being one of the country's 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Independence Hall, where the Declaration of Independence was signed, and the Liberty Bell are the city's most famous attractions. Other historic sites include homes for Edgar Allan Poe, Betsy Ross, and Thaddeus Kosciuszko, early government buildings like the First and Second Banks of the United States, Fort Mifflin, and the Gloria Dei (Old Swedes') Church. Philadelphia alone has 67 National Historic Landmarks, the third most of any city in the country.

Philadelphia's major science museums include the Franklin Institute, which contains the Benjamin Franklin National Memorial; the Academy of Natural Sciences; the Mutter Museum; and the University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology. History museums include the National Constitution Center, the Atwater Kent Museum of Philadelphia History, the National Museum of American Jewish History, the African American Museum in Philadelphia, the Historical Society of Pennsylvania, the Grand Lodge of Free and Accepted Masons in the state of Pennsylvania and The Masonic Library and Museum of Pennsylvania and Eastern State Penitentiary. Philadelphia is home to the United States' first zoo and hospital as well as Fairmount Park, one of America's oldest and largest urban parks

Major Microbiology Associations Around the Globe:

  • International Union of Microbiological Societies

  • Society for general Microbiology

  • American Society for Microbiology

  • Canadian Society of Microbiologists

  • British Infection Association

  • European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases

  • Federation of European Microbiological Societies

  • Welsh Microbiology Association

  • Clinical Virology Network

  • Federation of Infection Societies

  • Infectious Diseases Society of America

Universities Associated With Microbiology:

Figure: Total number of universities with microbiology departments in USA, Europe, Australia and Asia.


Top ranked universities in core microbiology research:

Figure: Subject-wise highly ranked universities in USA, UK, Asia and Australia.

Global markets for microbiology technology, equipment and consumables:

Figure: Global consumable, technology, equipment and consumable market by microbiology industry.

Global market for microbes and microbial products:

Figure: Trends in global market for microbes and microbial products, 2010–2016 ($ millions)

Need for anti-microbial drug development:

The need for new antimicrobial agents is greater than ever because of the emergence of multidrug resistance in common pathogens, the rapid emergence of new infections, and the potential for use of multidrug-resistant agents in bioweapons.

Top 15 global pharmaceutical companies manufacturing antimicrobial products:

  • Merck and Co

  • Johnson and Johnson

  • Pfizer

  • GlaxoSmithKline

  • Bristol-Meyers Squibb

  • Aventis

  • Pharmacia

  • Novartis

  • F. Hoffmann-La Roche

  • AstraZeneca

  • Abott Laboratories

  • Wyeth

  • Eli Lilly and Co

  • Schering Plough

  • Bayer

Funding sources for microbiology research and prevention of microbial diseases in USA:

Many U.S agencies are working to improve the health of world’s population. Under the Global Health Initiative (GHI), there is a concerted effort to improve coordination across U.S. agencies to increase efficiencies and align investments with recipient country priorities, with the aim of making programs sustainable. Some of the major funding agencies include:

  • Centres for disease control and prevention

  • NIH

  • The global fund to fight AIDS, TB and Malaria.


  • ASM

  • AAAS


  • IDSA etc.

Anti-microbial drugs approved by FDA in 2015:

  • Avycaz

  • Bexsero

  • Cresemba

  • Evotaz

  • Prezcobix


Microbiologists 2016

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