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Chronic Kidney Disease and ESRD
Persons with Chronic Kidney Disease have significantly higher rates of morbidity, mortality, hospitalizations and health care utilization. Hypertension and Diabetes are the two most important CKD risk factors. Other CKD risk factors include Urinary Tract Obstruction, Stones, Solitary Kidney, Nephro-toxins, autoimmunity. CKD can lead to numerous health problems such as anemia, cardiac problems, bone loss and death. CKD can develop into End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD), which requires constant treatment known as dialysis therapy. Dialysis involves artificially cleaning the waste materials from the blood with special medical equipment. Kidney Transplantation is preferred if dialysis therapy fails in extreme condition. Most patients with ESRD receive dialysis.
Pediatric Acute Kidney Injury
Acute Kidney Injury in the child or infants is defined as an abrupt cessation of kidney function. In the pediatric and neonatal intensive care units acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common complication where renal transplantation therapy is frequently implemented in children in whom the supportive therapy is not to the mark to touch the metabolic demands. In majority, peritoneal dialysis is more preferred for children in the times of renal transplantation because of the non-complexity of the procedure. In most of the pediatric end stage renal nephrology disease, peritoneal nephrology dialysis is more preferred as it can be done even in home. The diagnosis of AKI is based on increases in serum creatinine or decreases in urine output.
If anyone has diabetes, the blood glucose, or blood sugar levels are very high. For prolonged period, this can damage the kidneys. The role of kidney is to clean your blood. In case they are damaged, waste and fluids accumulate in your blood with out of leaving from your body.
If the kidney damage by diabetes is called diabetic nephropathy. Usually it starts long before you have notice symptoms. The beginning sign of it is small quantity of protein in urine. By urine test we can detect diabetic nephropathy or blood test can also determine the functioning of kidneys.
End-stage renal disease also termed as chronic kidney diseases (CKD) comprise conditions that damage kidneys and impair their ability to keep you hygienic by abnormal function. On condition kidney disease gets worse; wastes can accumulate to high levels in your blood and make you feel ill. You may develop issues like anemia, high blood pressure, weak bones, nerve damage and poor nutritional health. Also, kidney disease elevates your risk of having coronary disease and heart problems. These problems may occur slowly for a long period of time. Diabetes and high blood pressure are the two main causes of chronic kidney disease.
Acute kidney failure: Disfunction of the kidneys to filter the waste from the blood. Decreased urinary output, swelling due to urinary retention, nausea, shortness of breath is some of the symptoms. Acute tubular necrosis was death of the tubular epithelial of the renal tubules in the kidneys. Consumption of nephrotoxic drugs & low blood pressure are the common causes. Diabetes insipidus- A condition in which kidneys prevent the excretion of water. Hypocalcemia & Several Other Case Reports Related to Nephrology.
Every nephrologist has received extensive training in general internal medicine, and many nephrologists will treat their patients for other things besides kidney problems. It’s important that patients tell their kidney doctors if they notice any changes in their health.
Dialysis works on the objective of the diffusion of solutes and ultrafiltration of liquid over a semi-penetrable layer. Diffusion is a property of substances in water substances in water tend to move from a territory of high fixation to a range of low focus. The two primary sorts of dialysis, Hemodialysis and Peritoneal dialysis removes wastes and water from the blood in various ways. Hemodialysis removes waste water by circling blood outside the body through an outer filter called a dialyzer that contains a semipermeable layer. There are five types of dialysis three are primary and two are secondary types of dialysis: Hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis, hemofiltration are primary types of dialysis and were as hemodiafiltration, and intestinal dialysis is secondary type of dialysis.
Although medicine cannot reverse chronic kidney disease, it is often used to help treat symptoms and complications and to slow further kidney damage. Most people who have chronic kidney disease have problems with high blood pressure at some time during their disease. Medicines that lower blood pressure help to keep it in a target range and stop any more kidney damage. You may need to try several blood pressure medicines before you find the medicine that controls your blood pressure well without bothersome side effects. Most people need to take a combination of medicines to get the best results. Your doctor may order blood tests 3 to 5 days after you start or change your medicines. The tests help your doctor make sure that your medicines are working correctly.