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22nd World Nephrologists Summit , will be organized around the theme “Investigating the Current Novelty & Core Approaches in Nephrology”

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\r\n Nephrology is a branch of medical science that deals with function and diseases of the kidneys and it focuses on the diagnosis and treatment of kidney diseases. The kidneys are paired retroperitoneal organs that lie at the level of the T12 to L3 vertebral bodies. The kidney has a fibrous capsule, which is surrounded by pararenal fat. The kidney itself can be divided into renal parenchyma, consisting of renal cortex and medulla, and the renal sinus containing renal pelvis, calyces, renal vessels, nerves, lymphatics and perirenal fat. The renal parenchyma has two layers: cortex and medulla. The renal cortex lies peripherally under the capsule while the renal medulla consists of 10-14 renal pyramids, which are separated from each other by an extension of renal cortex called renal columns. The kidneys serve important functions, including filtration and excretion of metabolic waste products (urea and ammonium); regulation of necessary electrolytes, fluid, and acid-base balance; and stimulation of red blood cell production. They also serve to regulate blood pressure via the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, controlling reabsorption of water and maintaining intravascular volume.

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\r\n Acute kidney injury (AKI) is an unexpected incident of kidney failure or kidney damage that occurs within a few hours or a few days. AKI causes a build-up of waste products in your blood and makes it tough for your kidneys to keep the right balance of fluid in your body. AKI can also distress other organs such as the brain, heart, and lungs. Acute kidney injury is common in patients who are in the hospital, in intensive care units, and especially in older adults.

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\r\n Nephrology Nursing is a planned attempt to increase nursing knowledge by the discovery of new facts through systematic enquiry. It includes: Improvement in patient care, reduced cost of kidney care provision, Accountability and protection against litigation, Addition to the existing body of nursing knowledge, Enhancement of nursing as a profession.

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\r\n Renal care nursing is the field of nursing with a focus on the most extreme consideration of the discriminatingly sick or unsteady chronic kidney patients. Contamination revolution and nursing consideration is the control concerned with turning away nosocomial or health awareness related disease, a functional (as opposed to scholastic) sub-order of the study of disease transmission. Infants who need escalated restorative consideration are regularly conceded into a unique region of the clinic called the Neonatal serious care and nursing consideration. The part of backing in discriminating nursing consideration: Critical consideration medical attendants work in a wide assortment of settings, filling numerous parts including bedside clinicians, attendant teachers, medical caretaker analysts, medical caretaker supervisors, clinical medical caretaker authorities and medical attendant professionals.

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\r\n Dialysis works on the objective of the diffusion of solutes and ultrafiltration of liquid over a semi-penetrable layer. Diffusion is a property of substances in water substances in water tend to move from a territory of high fixation to a range of low focus. The two primary sorts of dialysis, Hemodialysis and Peritoneal dialysis removes wastes and water from the blood in various ways. Hemodialysis removes waste water by circling blood outside the body through an outer filter called a dialyzer that contains a semipermeable layer. There are five types of dialysis three are primary and two are secondary types of dialysis: Hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis, hemofiltration are primary types of dialysis and were as hemodiafiltration, and intestinal dialysis is secondary type of dialysis.

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\r\n A branch of medicine which deals with the study of normal kidney function, kidney problems & their treatment. It also involves Renal replacement therapies.

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\r\n Acute kidney failure: Disfunction of the kidneys to filter the waste from the blood. Decreased urinary output, swelling due to urinary retention, nausea, shortness of breath is some of the symptoms. Acute tubular necrosis was death of the tubular epithelial of the renal tubules in the kidneys. Consumption of nephrotoxic drugs & low blood pressure are the common causes. Diabetes insipidus-  A condition in which kidneys prevent the excretion of water. Hypocalcemia & Several Other Case Reports Related to Nephrology.

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\r\n Every nephrologist has received extensive training in general internal medicine, and many nephrologists will treat their patients for other things besides kidney problems. It’s important that patients tell their kidney doctors if they notice any changes in their health.

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\r\n End-stage renal disease also termed as chronic kidney diseases (CKD) comprise conditions that damage kidneys and impair their ability to keep you hygienic by abnormal function. On condition kidney disease gets worse; wastes can accumulate to high levels in your blood and make you feel ill. You may develop issues like anemia, high blood pressure, weak bones, nerve damage and poor nutritional health. Also, kidney disease elevates your risk of having coronary disease and heart problems. These problems may occur slowly for a long period of time. Diabetes and high blood pressure are the two main causes of chronic kidney disease.

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\r\n Robotic surgery, computer-assisted surgery, and robotically-assisted surgery are terms for technological developments that use robotic systems to aid in surgical procedures. Robotically-assisted surgery was developed to overcome the limitations of pre-existing minimally-invasive surgical procedures and to enhance the capabilities of surgeons performing open surgery.

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\r\n The diabetic kidney disease or diabetic nephropathy is a renal related complication usually occurs in some people with diabetes mellitus. In diabetic nephropathy filters of the kidneys and glomeruli become damaged. In this condition the kidneys leak abnormal quantity of protein from blood into the urine.

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\r\n If anyone has diabetes, the blood glucose, or blood sugar levels are very high. For prolonged period, this can damage the kidneys. The role of kidney is to clean your blood. In case they are damaged, waste and fluids accumulate in your blood with out of leaving from your body.

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\r\n If the kidney damage by diabetes is called diabetic nephropathy. Usually it starts long before you have notice symptoms. The beginning sign of it is small quantity of protein in urine. By urine test we can detect diabetic nephropathy or blood test can also determine the functioning of kidneys.

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\r\n The kidneys are often targeted by pathogenic immune responses against renal auto antigens or by local manifestations of systemic autoimmunity. For the diagnosis renal pathologists use special tests and electron microscopes to detect the cells involved in diseases affecting the kidneys.

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\r\n Kidney biopsies permit us to analyses renal disorders; review anticipations; help in the resolve of a precise restorative approach; and screen ailment movement in both local and allograft transplant kidneys. To maximally abuse renal biopsy examples, a blend of light, immunofluorescence and electron microscopy is used. Each microscopy requires distinctive strategies for fixation and preparing, so each renal biopsy centers are commonly separated into three sections. Contingent upon the length of the biopsy center or suspected illness process; in any case, the strategy for partitioning the biopsy center might be altered.

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\r\n Kidney transplantation or renal transplantation is the organ transplant of a kidney into a patient with end-arrange kidney diseases. Kidney transplantation is commonly named deceased donor known as cadaveric or living donor transplantation relying upon the wellspring of the giver organ. Living donor kidney transplants are formerly differentiated as non-related living transplants or, living related transplants contingent upon whether a biological relationship exists between the kidney donor and kidney recipient. Exchanges and chains are a novel way to deal with grows the living donor pool.

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\r\n The study of pediatric nephrology determines diagnosis and management of infants with a chronic and acute kidney disorders. The division of pediatric nephrology assesses and treats hypertension, hematuria, proteinuria, renal tubular acidosis, nephrolithiasis, glomerulonephritis and kidney damage in children. It also includes complete care to pediatric patients with end stage kidney syndromes, including consideration to patients experiencing peritoneal dialysis, hemodialysis and kidney transplantation in infants.

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\r\n Although medicine cannot reverse chronic kidney disease, it is often used to help treat symptoms and complications and to slow further kidney damage. Most people who have chronic kidney disease have problems with high blood pressure at some time during their disease. Medicines that lower blood pressure help to keep it in a target range and stop any more kidney damage. You may need to try several blood pressure medicines before you find the medicine that controls your blood pressure well without bothersome side effects. Most people need to take a combination of medicines to get the best results. Your doctor may order blood tests 3 to 5 days after you start or change your medicines. The tests help your doctor make sure that your medicines are working correctly.

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\r\n Clinical Nephrology covers the conclusion and treating of renal syndromes, including primary and secondary hypertension and electrolyte disturbances, and the care of those requiring renal replacement treatment, including dialysis and renal transplant patients. Numerous diseases influencing the kidney are systemic scatters not constrained to the organ itself and may require uncommon treatment. Illustrations incorporate procured conditions, for example, systemic vasculitides and immune system diseases, lupus and innate or genetic conditions, such as, polycystic kidney diseases. Patients are referred to clinical nephrology doctors after a urinalysis, for different reasons, such as, acute kidney failure, hematuria, proteinuria, chronic kidney diseases, kidney stones, hypertension, and disarranges of acid/base or electrolytes.

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