Nephrology

The paired retroperitoneal organs i.e. kidneys are lie behind the peritoneum at the level of the T12 to L3 vertebral bodies at an oblique angle. Kidneys have a fibrous capsule, which is covered by pararenal fat. Kidney itself can be divided into renal parenchyma, which consisting of renal cortex and medulla, and renal sinus which contains renal pelvis, calyces, renal vessels, nerves, lymphatic and perirenal fat. Cortex and medulla are the two layers of renal parenchyma. Renal medulla consists of 10-14 renal pyramids and the renal cortex lies peripherally under the capsule, these are separated from each other by renal cortex named renal columns. Kidneys perform an important role, which includes filtration & excretion of metabolic waste products like urea and ammonium, maintain of electrolytes balance, fluid, and acid-base balance; and also for red blood cell production. They also important for regulate blood pressure through renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, by controlling reabsorption of water they maintaining intravascular circulatory volume.

The kidneys reabsorb amino acids and glucose and have hormonal functions through the erythropoietin, vitamin D activation and calcitriol.

  • Nephrology
  • Kidney Function
  • Kidney Failure
  • Kidney Diseases
  • New Kidney Diseases
  • Kidney and Anemia
  • Inherited Kidney Diseases
  • Medullary Sponge Kidney
  • Advances in Nephrology
  • Renal Histopathology
  • Kidney Stones

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