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12th Global Nephrologists Annual Meeting, will be organized around the theme “Developing new remedial methods and awareness to prevent Kidney diseases”
Nephrologists 2017 is comprised of keynote and speakers sessions on latest cutting edge research designed to offer comprehensive global discussions that address current issues in Nephrologists 2017
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The paired retroperitoneal organs i.e. kidneys are lie behind the peritoneum at the level of the T12 to L3 vertebral bodies at an oblique angle. Kidneys have a fibrous capsule, which is covered by pararenal fat. Kidney itself can be divided into renal parenchyma, which consisting of renal cortex and medulla, and renal sinus which contains renal pelvis, calyces, renal vessels, nerves, lymphatic and perirenal fat. Cortex and medulla are the two layers of renal parenchyma. Renal medulla consists of 10-14 renal pyramids and the renal cortex lies peripherally under the capsule, these are separated from each other by renal cortex named renal columns. Kidneys perform an important role, which includes filtration & excretion of metabolic waste products like urea and ammonium, maintain of electrolytes balance, fluid, and acid-base balance; and also for red blood cell production. They also important for regulate blood pressure through renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, by controlling reabsorption of water they maintaining intravascular circulatory volume.
The kidneys reabsorb amino acids and glucose and have hormonal functions through the erythropoietin, vitamin D activation and calcitriol.
- Track 1-1Nephrology
- Track 1-2Renal Histopathology
- Track 1-3Advances in Nephrology
- Track 1-4Medullary Sponge Kidney
- Track 1-5Inherited Kidney Diseases
- Track 1-6Kidney and Anemia
- Track 1-7New Kidney Diseases
- Track 1-8Kidney Diseases
- Track 1-9Kidney Failure
- Track 1-10Kidney Function
- Track 1-11Kidney Stones
The diabetic kidney disease sometimes also called as diabetic nephropathy is a renal related complication usually occurs in some people with diabetes mellitus. In diabetic nephropathy filters of the kidneys and glomeruli become damaged. In this condition the kidneys leak abnormal quantity of protein from blood into the urine.
If anyone has diabetes, the blood glucose, or blood sugar levels are very high. For prolonged period, this can damage the kidneys. The role of kidney is to clean your blood. In case they are damaged, waste and fluids accumulate in your blood with out of leaving from your body.
If the kidney damage by diabetes is called diabetic nephropathy. Usually it starts long before you have notice symptoms. The beginning sign of it is small quantity of protein in urine. By urine test we can detect diabetic nephropathy or blood test can also determine the functioning of kidneys.
- Track 2-1Diabetic Nephropathy
- Track 2-2Diabetes Mellitus (Clinical)
- Track 2-3Diabetic Nephropathy – Biomarkers of Disease
- Track 2-4Intensive Management of Blood Glucose
- Track 2-5Genetics of Kidney Disease –Diabetic Kidney Disease
- Track 2-6Hypertension - Clinical and Experimental Models
- Track 2-7Renal Hemodynamics and Vascular Physiology
Kidneys are very important for survival with their large network of blood vessels and capillary network of tubes and tubules that filter blood excrete excess water and waste products. The role of kidneys is to maintain fluid, acid-base balance and electrolytes in our body, these functions are interrupted by many disease conditions as well as medicines and toxins. Glomerular diseases that affect the micro filtering systems of the kidneys termed as the glomerulus, abnormalities urine like excess loss of protein, sugar, casts, and blood crystals through the urine. Tubulointerstitial diseases affect the tubules of the kidneys, renal vascular diseases affecting the networks of blood vessels within the kidneys, kidney failure that can be either sudden, acute or long term or chronic, renal and bladder stones, infections of kidney, kidney cancer, urethra, and bladder, Effects of diseases such as diabetes and high blood pressure on kidneys, imbalances of acid base, Nephrotic syndrome and nephritis, Ill effects of drugs and toxins on the renal system, The long term complications of dialysis- dialysis includes peritoneal dialysis as well as hemodialysis, The autoimmune diseases like lupus, autoimmune vasculitis, etc. The cystic diseases of kidney where large cysts or fluid filled sacs are generated within the kidney diminish its functions; this is an inherited and congenital or genetic condition.
- Track 3-1Cystic Disease: Genetics and Cell Biology, Models, and Experimental Therapies
- Track 3-2Infection and Renal Disease
- Track 3-3Autoimmune Disorders and Kidney Disease
- Track 3-4Clinical Nephrology - General Aspects
- Track 3-5Supportive Care, including End-of-Life Issues
- Track 3-6Pregnancy and CKD
- Track 3-7•ADPKD-Update on Diagnosis, Monitoring Progression and Treatment
- Track 3-8Tubulointerstitial Renal Disease, Stones and Urinary Infection
- Track 3-9Vasculitides (Clinical)
- Track 3-10Secondary Glomerular Disease
- Track 3-11Primary Glomerular Disease (Clinical)
- Track 3-12Other Renal Disease - Experimental Models
- Track 3-13Renal Pathology, Experimental Pathology, incl. Immune and Inflammatory Mechanisms
- Track 3-14GN – Experimental Models
- Track 3-15HIV – Nephropathy and Other Associated Kidney Lesions
Acute renal failure (ARF), previously called acute kidney injury (AKI), is a sudden and unexpected loss of kidney function that develops within a week. Acute renal failure (formerly known as acute kidney injury) is a disease distinguished by the acute loss of the kidney's eliminatory function and is commonly diagnosed through the accumulation of urea and creatinine or reduced urine output, or both. Acute kidney injury may lead to a number of kidney problems, including high potassium levels, metabolic acidosis, changes in body fluid balance, uremia, also effects on other body systems ultimately leads to death. People who have experienced acute kidney injury may have high incidence of chronic kidney disease in the future. Controlling measures includes treatment of the root cause and supportive care, such as kidney transplantation.
- Track 4-1Acute Kidney Injury– Experimental Models
- Track 4-2Clinical Studies including Toxic Nephropathy
- Track 4-3Biomarkers for Acute Kidney Injury
- Track 4-4Acute Renal Failure – Clinical
- Track 4-5Acute Kidney Injury - Onco-Nephrology (Diseases)
- Track 4-6Acute Kidney Injury – Onco-Nephrology (Drugs)
- Track 4-7Acute Kidney Injury – Pregnancy (Pre-Eclampsia, TMA, HELLP, Other Causes)
- Track 4-8Acute Kidney Injury – Update on CRRT, SLED, etc.
- Track 4-9Extracorporeal Therapies - Intoxications, Overdoses, Liver Failure, etc.
End-stage renal disease also termed as chronic kidney diseases (CKD) comprise conditions that damage kidneys and impair their ability to keep you hygienic by abnormal function. On condition kidney disease gets worse; wastes can accumulate to high levels in your blood and make you feel ill. You may develop issues like anemia, high blood pressure, weak bones, nerve damage and poor nutritional health. Also, kidney disease elevates your risk of having coronary disease and heart problems. These problems may occur slowly for a long period of time. Diabetes and high blood pressure are the two main causes of chronic kidney disease.
- Track 5-1Acid Base and Electrolyte Abnormalities
- Track 5-2Chronic Kidney Disease – Mesoamerican Nephropathy
- Track 5-3Infection (CKD 3-5)
- Track 5-4Nutrition (CKD 3-5)
- Track 5-5Anemia (CKD 3-5)
- Track 5-6Bone and Mineral Metabolism
- Track 5-7Epidemiology, Outcomes and Health Service Research In CKD
- Track 5-8Chronic Kidney Disease Diagnosis, Classification and Progression
- Track 5-9Cardiovascular Complications of CKD 3-5
- Track 5-10Chronic Kidney Disease – Diseases and Drugs
Kidney cancer (also called renal adenocarcinoma or renal cell cancer) is a disease in which cancer cells are found in the lining of tubules in the kidney. We have two kidneys, behind the peritoneum one on each side of the spinal cord, just above the waist. Small tubules in the kidneys purify the blood. Unabsorbed products formed as urine. The formed urine passes in to bladder through long tube called bladder. The urine stored in bladder until leaves from body through urethra. Kidney cancer perhaps remains clinically occult for most of its course. Immunomodulatory agents and targeted therapy are the standard of care in metastatic disease patients.
Kidney cancer: The most common malignant disease affecting kidney is kidney cancer. One of the most common causes for kidney cancer is smoking.
- Track 6-1Renal cell carcinoma
- Track 6-2Types of renal cell carcinoma
- Track 6-3Renal cell carcinoma risk factors
- Track 6-4Pathophysiology
- Track 6-5Treatment and Outcomes
- Track 6-6Immunotherapy
- Track 6-7Targeted Therapy
The most common form of kidney replacement therapy is dialysis, is a way of cleaning the blood with artificial kidneys. There is of types of dialysis they are:
2. Peritoneal dialysis.
Hemodialysis required with the patients of renal failure. In this process of hemodialysis, an artificial kidney purifies blood. We should make an "access," usually in the forearm where blood can easily be taken from the body and sent to the artificial kidney for purification. The access collects blood from patient body and undergoes purification in artificial kidney and again injected the purified blood in to patient body.
In peritoneal dialysis no artificial kidney is used. The peritoneum (lining inside your abdomen) is used as a filter instead of artificial kidney. Peritoneal dialysis is of two types they are continuous cycling peritoneal dialysis and continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Peritoneal dialysis is used in kidney failure patients.
- Track 7-1Extracorporeal Dialysis: Techniques and Adequacy
- Track 7-2Palliative Care for CKD/ESRD
- Track 7-3Conservative Management of Advanced CKD (Vs. Dialysis)
- Track 7-4Infection (CKD 5D)
- Track 7-5Nutrition (CKD 5D)
- Track 7-6Anemia (CKD 5D)
- Track 7-7Bone and Mineral Metabolism (CKD 5D)
- Track 7-8Cardiovascular Complications Of CKD 5D
- Track 7-9Clinical Studies in Renal Transplantation
- Track 7-10Transplantation: Basic Science and Immune Tolerance
- Track 7-11Epidemiology, Outcomes and Health Services Research in Dialysis
- Track 7-12Complications of Dialysis
- Track 7-13Haemodialysis
- Track 7-14Vascular Access in Dialysis
- Track 7-15Peritoneal Dialysis
- Track 7-16Quality Of Life in Dialysis
Kidney Transplantation is the way toward putting a solid kidney which assumes control over the work of cleaning blood by performing surgery in patients with kidney failure. It is delegated living contributor transplantation or perished benefactor transplantation on the wellspring of organ of the giver.
Kidney transplantation is the decision of treatment when kidneys fall flat alongside hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis. kidney transplants are arranged into two sorts: those that originate from living contributors and those that originate from inconsequential givers who have kicked the bucket (non-living donors).Kidney transplant should be possible to patients who : withstand the impacts of surgery, immunosuppressant pharmaceutical, transplant has great shot of accomplishment, medicines after transplantation. Not at all like numerous different sorts of organ gift, it conceivable to give a kidney while you are alive on the grounds that you just need one kidney to survive.
- Track 8-1Past, Present and Future of Transplantation
- Track 8-2Stem Cell Transplantation
- Track 8-3Acute Renal Allograft Rejection
- Track 8-4Post-Transplant Complications
- Track 8-5Pregnancy after Transplantation
- Track 8-6Dual Kidney Transplantation
- Track 8-7Pediatric Renal Transplantation
- Track 8-8Transplantation Techniques
- Track 8-9Advances in Kidney Transplantation
- Track 8-10Screening Tests
- Track 8-11Immunosuppression
Pediatric Nephrology is a specialization in the diagnosis and management of children with different types of acute and chronic kidney-related diseases. The division assesses and treats hypertension, proteinuria, hematuria, renal tubular acidosis, glomerulonephritis, nephrolithiasis, and kidney disorders. Various kidney diseases like pediatric nephritis is clinically and hereditarily heterogeneous substance portrayed by backsliding, and interminable course with noteworthy dreariness and mortality coming about because of intricacies of the sickness itself, and its treatment.
The Pediatric nephrology research clinical perceptions relating to any part of the wide range of intense and incessant maladies that influence renal capacity in kids and in addition on hypertension and liquid and electrolyte digestion system.
- Track 9-1Comprehensive Pediatric Nephrology
- Track 9-2Pediatric Kidney Care
- Track 9-3Pediatric Kidney Dialysis
- Track 9-4Advances in Kidney Operation
- Track 9-5Pediatric Renal Transplantation
- Track 9-6Advanced Therapies
- Track 9-7Diagnostic Techniques
- Track 9-8Pediatric Renal Failure
- Track 9-9Clinical Pediatric Nephrology
- Track 9-10Pediatric Kidney Failure Diet
Patients with a wide range of kidney infection and hypertension this also includes chronic or acute kidney diseases, kidney stones, because of any cause, resistant or secondary hypertension, cystic kidney diseases, inherited kidney diseases, unexplained proteinuria or hematuria, fluid and electrolyte homeostasis abnormalities, pregnancy-related kidney disorders, nephrotic, glomerulonephritis, vascular kidney diseases, and others. Hypertension occurs when the pressure of blood on the walls of blood vessels increases enough to bring about harm. For individuals who have diabetes or unending kidney infection, circulatory strain of 130/80 or more is viewed as high. A few sorts of kidney sickness may bring about hypertension. All the more frequently it is hypertension that causes kidney illness. Hypertension can accelerate the loss of kidney capacity in individuals with kidney disease.
- Track 10-1Etiology and classification
- Track 10-2Essential hypertension
- Track 10-3Hypophosphatemia, Hyperuricemia, Hyperkalemia
- Track 10-4Hypertension, CKD and Diabetes
- Track 10-5Reno vascular hypertension, Anti hypersensitive therapy
- Track 10-6Recent Advances in Glomerular Disorders and Hypertension
- Track 10-7Anemia and Erythropoietin, Renal Osteodystrophy
- Track 10-8Hypertension and Renal Disease in Pregnancy
Kidney disease may also lead to heart disease or coronary illness because of this more than 20 million people died in the U.S. with chronic kidney disease. Chronic kidney disease induces the risk of death from cardiovascular disease. Coronary disease result for more than half of all deaths among individuals with CKD (Chronic kidney diseases). Indeed, even early or mellow renal disease ailment puts a man at higher danger of heart ailments and heart attacks and also heart disease-related death. Kidney dialysis patients who also have cardiovascular disease are died 10 to 30 times more than in the general cardiovascular patients. Diabetes and hypertension are major risk factors for heart disease and chronic kidney disease. Kidney disease (acute kidney disease or chronic kidney disease) can induce the danger of cardiovascular ill, even with hypertension, high cholesterol and concurrent diabetes. Recent researches show that kidney diseases (renal diseases) induces heart disease, even before the kidneys are harmed to the point of requiring dialysis or transplantation
- Track 11-1Effects of Cardiovascular Diseases on The Kidney
- Track 11-2Effects of The Kidney on The Cardiovascular System
- Track 11-3Diseases Affecting both Organs
- Track 11-4Modification of Cardiac Drugs in Renal Disease
- Track 11-5Hypertension
- Track 11-6Kidney and Vascular Diseases
Abnormal glomerular function may leads to damage of glomerulus components such as capillary endothelium, mesangium and epithelium basement membrane. In renal biopsy we can see cellular and structural pattern of glomeruli injury by using electron microscopy, light microscopy.
The compartment of tubulointerstitial is damaged in all the forms of kidney disease. As per the time of examination and the intensity of the lesions, in vascular diseases and glomerular we can identify tubular damage in glomerular, interstitial inflammation, tubular atrophy, fibrosis or edema. Tubular or acute interstitial damage can lead acute kidney failure, and prolonged changes are a best investigation of irreversible lesions and then they are great anticipation variables in vascular /glomerular diseases.
- Track 12-1Acute Pyelonephritis
- Track 12-2Acute Tubular Necrosis
- Track 12-3Acute Interstitial Nephritis Associated to Drugs
- Track 12-4Xanthogranulomatous Pyelonephritis
- Track 12-5Specific Renal Infections
- Track 12-6Chronic Infectious Tin (Chronic Pyelonephritis)
- Track 12-7Tin Associated with Systemic Infection
- Track 12-8Acute Infectious Tubulointerstitial Nephritis (Tin)
- Track 12-9Chronic Pyelonephritis
- Track 12-10Other Tubular Changes
Renal or bladder stones are the crystals of such as calcium, oxalate and uric acid. If a kidney stone obstructs in urethra or the ureter, cause hematuria (blood in the urine), constant and severe pain in the back or side, fever, vomiting, or chills. Nephrolithiasis (Kidney stones): Minerals in urine form stones, which may build big enough to block flow of urine. Most kidney stones pass through urine on their own but some kidney stones are too large they cannot pass and should be treated.
Bladder stones are hard masses of minerals in your bladder. Bladder stones create when urine in your bladder gets to be concentrated, bringing about minerals in your urine to take shape. Concentrated, stagnant urine is regularly the aftereffect of not having the capacity to totally exhaust your bladder. On the off chance that bladder stones are sufficiently little, they can go all alone with no detectable indications. In any case, once they get to be bigger, bladder stones can bring about incessant inclinations to urinate, excruciating or troublesome pee and hematuria.
- Track 13-1Kidney Stones
- Track 13-2Bladder Stones
- Track 13-3Artificial Kidney
- Track 13-4Kidney Supplements
- Track 13-5Transplant Research
- Track 13-6Respiratory Alkalosis
Under this category includes diseases of the urinary system, prostate gland including the kidneys and bladder. The bladder or urethra usually effected in urinary tract infections, yet more genuine and serious infections include the kidney. A bladder disease may bring about pelvic torment, expanded inclination to urinate, torment with pee and blood in the urine. Renal infection may bring about back agony, sickness, heaving and fever.
- Track 14-1Urethritis
- Track 14-2Obstruction of The Urinary Tract
- Track 14-3Kidney Failure
- Track 14-4Disorders of Urination
- Track 14-5Disorders of Kidney Tubules
- Track 14-6Dialysis
- Track 14-7Diagnosis of Kidney and Urinary Tract Disorders
- Track 14-8Cystic Kidney Disorders
- Track 14-9Cancers of the Kidney and Genitourinary Tract
- Track 14-10Blood Vessel Disorders of The Kidneys
- Track 14-11Pyelonephritis
- Track 14-12Stones in The Urinary Tract
The renal system maintain homeostasis in the body avoiding significant modifications in the balance of fluid electrolyte or acid–base parity until the Glomerular filtration rates reduced to below 25 ml/min because of a series of versatile changes, both Renal and extra renal. With dynamic decrease in renal capacity these components are overpowered bringing about unsettling influences in water digestion system adding to hypernatremia and hypernatremia. The modified control of sodium transport causes irritated volume status including volume over-burden and exhaustion. The rate of Hyperkalemia and metabolic acidosis is more incessant in Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) with GFR beneath 10 ml/min. In this survey article we will endeavor to audit the renal and additional renal adjustment components looking after liquid, electrolyte and corrosive base equalization in endless kidney illness alongside variables which cause disappointment of these instruments. The article will likewise highlight the normal liquid electrolyte and corrosive base issue in interminable kidney ailment and their treatment.
- Track 15-1Disorders of Plasma Osmolality
- Track 15-2Respiratory Acidosis
- Track 15-3Metabolic Acidosis
- Track 15-4Physiology of Acid-Base System
- Track 15-5Disturbances of Plasma Calcium Concentration
- Track 15-6Disturbances of Plasma Potassium Concentration
- Track 15-7Disturbances of Plasma Sodium Concentration
- Track 15-8Hydration in Kidney Disease Prevention
- Track 15-9Electrolyte Disorders in Diabetes Mellitus
- Track 15-10Metabolic Alkalosis
The mineral and bone metabolism disorders (MBD) are common in patients with chronic kidney disease. Conventionally, these disorders collectively called as renal osteodystrophy. We can see mineral and bone disorders in patients with chronic kidney diseases, Calcium and phosphorus levels in patient’s blood to be out of balance due to imbalance of hormones. This leads to kidney failure and dialysis.
The kidneys assume an essential part in keeping up sound bone mass and structure by adjusting phosphorus and calcium levels in the blood. Sound kidneys actuate a type of vitamin D that a man expends in sustenance, transforming it into calcitriol, the dynamic type of the vitamin. Calcitriol helps the kidneys keep up blood calcium levels and advances the arrangement of bone. The kidneys likewise expel additional phosphorus, adjusting levels of phosphorus and calcium in the blood. Maintain the best possible level of phosphorus in the blood keeps healthy bones.
- Track 16-1Mineral and Bone Disorder in Chronic Kidney Disease
- Track 16-2Mineral and Bone Disorder in Children with Chronic Kidney Disease
- Track 16-3Cardiovascular Calcification
- Track 16-4Treatment with Active Forms of Vitamin D
Some renal diseases like Polycystic Kidney Disease (PKD) are result from hereditary factors. In polycystic kidney disease number of cysts develops in the kidney, these cysts gradually replace the mass of kidney. Impairing kidney function and leading to renal failure.
Geriatric nephrology is a developing subspecialty of old patients. Patients who are living longer may obtain infections that quicken perpetual kidney diseases, which regularly remain undetected until patients are defied with the sudden requirement for dialysis
Renal cystic illness includes an extensive variety of sickness elements. They can be named either (1) inherited or obtained or (2) systemic or renal limited illnesses that have the normal element of numerous renal pimples. Every malady substance contrasts in its presentation, anticipation, and administration. Renal sores are smooth-walled, liquid filled round structures framed by central out pouching of renal tubules. In any case, huge steps have been made as of late. For autosomal predominant and autosomal passive polycystic kidney sicknesses (ADPKD and ARPKD), a photo is beginning to rise. Abandons in the essential ciliary detecting systems, intracellular calcium control, and cell cyclic AMP (cAMP) aggregation all appear to assume a part in the modified cell phenotype and capacities.
- Track 17-1Inherited Kidney Diseases
- Track 17-2Renal Cystic Diseases
- Track 17-3Polycystic Kidney Disease (PKD)
- Track 17-4Kidney Disease in Elderly Diabetic Patients
- Track 17-5Drug Dosing and Renal Toxicity in the Elderly Patient
- Track 17-6Glomerular Disease in the Elderly
- Track 17-7Hypertension, Chronic Kidney Disease, and The Elderly
- Track 17-8Cardiovascular Disease in the Elderly With Kidney Disease
- Track 17-9Vascular Disease in the Elderly
Syndrome of protein-energy wasting consists of nutritional and metabolic abnormalities seen in chronic kidney disease. Maintain a healthy lifestyle is essential for people with renal disorders, especially if you have high blood pressure, diabetes, or both. Control and maintain of good blood glucose can help to prevent or postpone diabetic complications, including kidney disease. What you eat and drink may help slow down kidney disease. Dietitian can guide you how to select foods that are easier on your kidneys about protein, potassium, phosphorus, sodium, and how to read food leaflets and labels.
- Track 18-1Nutrition Therapy
- Track 18-2Diet With Kidney Failure
- Track 18-3Loss of Kidney Function Linked to Obesity
- Track 18-4Chronic Kidney Disease Diet
- Track 18-5Renal Supplements
- Track 18-6Physical Exercise
- Track 18-7Fluid Intake
- Track 18-8Low Sodium
- Track 18-9Low Potassium
- Track 18-10Low Phosphorous Diet
- Track 18-11Low Protein Diet
- Track 18-12Renal Dietitians
The kidneys are often targeted by pathogenic immune responses against renal auto antigens or by local manifestations of systemic autoimmunity. For the diagnosis renal pathologists use special tests and electron microscopes to detect the cells involved in diseases affecting the kidneys.
Kidney biopsies permit us to analyze renal disorders; survey anticipations; help in the determination of a particular restorative approach; and screen ailment movement in both local and allograft transplant kidneys. To maximally abuse renal biopsy examples, a blend of light, immunofluorescence and electron microscopy is used. Every type of microscopy requires distinctive strategies for obsession and preparing, so each renal biopsy center section is commonly separated into three sections. Contingent upon the length of the biopsy center or suspected illness process; in any case, the strategy for partitioning the biopsy center might be altered.
Your nephrologist will work to slow or control the reason of your kidney disease. Depending on the root cause, some types of kidney disease can be treated. Frequently, though, chronic kidney disease has no prevention. In the event that your kidneys turn out to be seriously harmed, you may require treatment for end-stage kidney diseases. In the event that your kidneys can't stay aware of waste and liquid freedom all alone and you create finish or close finish kidney disease, you have End-stage renal disorder. By then, dialysis or a kidney transplant is required. Since no particular in option and Ayurveda prescription for kidney can treat kidney disappointment successfully, the best technique is to join them. Immunotherapy, as one extraordinary leap forward in treating end-stage kidney sickness, is only a blend of cutting edge western restorative advances and customary home grown drugs.
- Track 20-1ACE Inhibitors
- Track 20-2Angiotensin II Receptor Blockers (Arbs)
- Track 20-3Beta-Blockers
- Track 20-4Calcium Channel Blockers
- Track 20-5Direct Renin Inhibitors
- Track 20-6Diuretics
- Track 20-7Vasodilator