Day 1 :
Saveetha Dental college &hospitals, Chennai,India.
Prof. G.Kaarthikeyan did his postgraduation in Periodontics and implantology from Saveetha dental college in 2007.He is working at Saveetha university as faculty since 2007. He is cureently working as professor and clinic head at Saveetha dental college. He has more than 30 publications in various national and international journals. He has presented papers and posters at various international conferences. He has delivered many guest lectures as well as invited speaker for many conferences. His area of research involves the role of genetics in inflammatory disease and regenerative periodontics. He s the editor of upcoming journal- International journal of Periodontal rehabilitation . he s reviewer of many indexed journals and editorial board member of few journals.
Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory disease of multifactorial etiology. Although gram negative anaerobes are essential in initiating the disease, many other factors determine the course and progression of the periodontal destruction. Among the various risk factors , the genetic component of the host plays a major role in periodontal destruction. The microbial agents are first screened by the pattern like receptors – Toll like receptors(TLR) and the signals are processed intracellularly by Nod like receptors -NLRP3. Thus the aim of my study was to analyse the association of 3’UTR polymorphisms of TLR4,NLRP3 gene and the micro RNAs regulating these region. The subjects were stratified into three groups -chronic periodontitis ,aggressive periodontitis and controls. The sample size was 240. DNA extraction from blood samples done and the polymorphisms were analysed using real time PCR. The TLR4(rs11536889), NLRP3(rs10802501), miR-146a (rs2910164) were analysed in this study.
- Innate and Adaptive Immunity,Vaccines and Vaccination
Principal Scientist and Group Leader at the Division of Bacteriology at NIBSC.
Dr Fatme Mawas is an immunologist/microbiologist by training and got her PhD 1995 from King’s College (London).
She is Principal Scientist and Group Leader at the Division of Bacteriology at NIBSC with over 19-years’ experience in the quality control and standardisation of conjugate vaccines against Haemophilus influenzae b, animal models and vaccine immunology.
She has over 29 refereed papers covering various aspects of assay development, standardisation and R&D in the field of conjugate vaccines, vaccine candidates and novel delivery systems.
Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) was a leading cause of meningitis in infants in the UK until October 1992, when Hib conjugate vaccine was introduced for children at age 2, 3, and 4 months.
Quality control testing of the vaccine is very important to ensure the quality, safety and efficacy of the vaccine. Here we describe our experience at the UK National Institute for Biological standards & Control in the testing and investigation of quality and efficacy of Hib vaccines in monovalent formulations and in combination with other vaccines such as meningococcal C or DTP-based combination vaccines
Assistant Professor, Research at Oklahoma State University, USA
Dr.Teluguakula received PhD from Osmania University, India and had postdoctoral training from Center for Veterinary Health Sciences, Oklahoma State University and at School of Medicine, National University of Singapore. He has published more than 30 papers in reputed journals mainly related to respiratory biology and pathology. Currently he is working as a project leader at Oklahoma Center for Respiratory and Infectious Diseases and Assistant Professor, Research at Oklahoma State University, USA.
Complications of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), a severe form of acute lung injury, remain major causes of death in influenza pneumonia. Several recent studies have demonstrated that considerable lung damage is contributed by the host immune response in addition to the cytopathic effects of the influenza virus. Previously we have demonstrated that excessive neutrophils recruitment and their generated neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) contribute to pathologic complications of ARDS in severe influenza pneumonia in mice. Neutrophils express predominantly CXC chemokine receptors including CXCR1 and CXCR2, which play key role in the recruitment and activation of neutrophils. This study was aimed to test the therapeutic potential of CXCR1/2 antagonism in severe influenza pneumonia. Our results have shown high increase in CXCR2 expression in both circulating and lung-recruited neutrophils. We used a selective CXCR1/2 antagonist, SCH527123 alone or in combination of an anti-vial agent, oseltamivir. BALB/c Female mice were challenged with lethal influenza A/PR/8/34 (H1N1), 2500pfu. Oseltamivir or SCH527123 were administered orally. Treatment with oseltamivir alone showed 15% survival, while all animals were died in SCH527123 alone treatment group. However the combined administration of these drugs resulted in 60% to 100% survival in mice after lethal influenza infection. The addition of SCH527123 to the combination therapy regime was also found to significantly alleviate lung pathology, compared to oseltamivir treatment alone. Lungs of infected animals following combination therapy showed decreased neutrophil influx, decreased release of extracellular histones, reduced vascular leakage, and reduced alveolar capillary damage. These results demonstrate that the use of CXCR1/2 antagonists in combination with a classical antiviral therapy can be a novel and effective treatment approach for severe influenza pneumonia.
Associate Professor of Graduate Institute of Immunology, National Taiwan University, Taiwan
Ching-Liang Chu has completed his PhD from National Defense Medical College/Academia Sinica, Taiwan and postdoctoral studies from School of Medicine, UCSF, CA, USA. He is the Associate Professor of Graduate Institute of Immunology, National Taiwan University, Taiwan. He has published more than 40 papers in reputed journals and has been serving as a reviewer of more than 20 reputed journals.
The inhibitory effect of immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM)-containing adapters DAP12 and FceRI g-chain (FcRg) has been found in many immune functions; however, the role of these adapters is not known in C-type lectin receptor (CLRs) response. In this report, we identified that FcRg, but not DAP12, could negatively regulate the Dectin-1 responses in dendritic cells (DCs). Loss of FcRg or both DAP12 and FcRg enhanced the maturation and cytokine production in DCs upon Dectin-1 activation compared to normal cells, whereas DCs lacking only DAP12 showed little changes. In addition, increment of recall T-cell proliferation was observed in FcRg-deficient mice. Examining the Dectin-1 signaling, we revealed that the activations of several signaling molecules were augmented in FcRg-deficient DCs stimulated with Dectin-1 ligands. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the association of phosphatases SHP-1 and PTEN with FcRg may contribute to the negative regulation of FcRg in Dectin-1 activation in DCs. These results extend the inhibitory effect of ITAM-containing adapters to Dectin-1 response in immune functions, even though Dectin-1 contains an ITAM-like intracellular domain. According to the role of Dectin-1 in responding to microbes and tumor cells, our finding may have applications in the development of vaccine and cancer therapy.
National Health Research Institutes, Taiwan.
Kuan-Yin Shen received his PhD from Graduate Institute of Life Science of National Defense Medical Center in 2014. He accepted postdoctoral fellowship in National Health Research Institutes in 2016. He has his expertise in the flied of tumor immunology to explore the mechanism of antigen processing for tumor vaccine development. To establish novel approach for immunotherapeutic tumor vaccines, he investigates the immune responses induced by lipo-immunogens, recombinant lipoproteins and lipo-peptides
Cross-presentation is an important function of dendritic cells (DCs), which present exogenous antigens on MHC class Imolecules to prime cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) responses. The effects of Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 triggering on the cross-presentation of exogenous antigens by DCs remain unclear. Here, we used synthetic di-palmitoylated peptides and TLR2 agonist-conjugated peptides as models to elucidate the mechanisms of TLR2-mediated cross-presentation. We observed that the internalization of di-palmitoylated peptides by bone marrow-derived DCs (BMDCs) was promoted by TLR2 via clathrin-mediated endocytosis. The administration of these di-palmitoylated peptide-pulsed BMDCs eliminated established tumors through TLR2 signaling. We further investigated that the induction of antigen-specific CTL responses and tumor regression by di-palmitoylated peptides was transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP) independent. Moreover, presentation of di-palmitoylated peptides by MHC class Imolecules were inhibited in the presence of an endosomal acidification inhibitor (chloroquine) or a cathepsin S inhibitor (Z-FL-COCHO). The endocytosed di-palmitoylated peptide also passed rapidly from early endosome antigen-1 (EEA1)-positive endosomes to RAS-related GTP-binding protein 7 (Rab7)-associated late endosomes compared with their non-lipidated counterparts. Furthermore, we found that di-palmitoylated peptide-upregulated Rab7 expression correlated with antigen presentation via the TLR2/MyD88 pathway. Both JNK and ERK signaling pathway are required for upregulation of Rab7. In summary, our data suggest that TLR2-mediated cross-presentation occurs through the upregulation of Rab7 and a TAP-independent pathway.
Assistant Professor in Mackay Medical College, New Taipei City, Taiwan.
En-Chih, Liao. Current Position is an Assistant Professor in Mackay Medical College, New Taipei City, Taiwan. His major degree is PhD from National Yang-Ming University, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan. His Specialty is in fields of Microbiology, Basic and Clinical immunology, Tropical Medicine, and Translation Medicine. Research Interest focus on the house dust mite allergen characterization, animal model of bronchial asthma, biomedical wafer of diagnostic development. Special honors for him are 2011 Seoul International Invention Fair (SIIF)(Gold Prize)、(Russian House Award) and 2014, 11th National Innovation Award
Tropomyosin was found to be responsible for the cross-reactivity between shrimp and dust mite, and measurement of tropomyosin specific IgE was reported superior to shrimp for predicting clinically allergic reaction. The aim of this study is to identify the cross-reactivity of tropomyosin among shrimp-Pen m 1 and dust mite-Der p 10. A total of 120 subjects were enrolled in this study: 60 children (<18 yr), 30 middle-age adults (18-65 yr) and 30 elderly adult (>65 yr). In the group of middle-age adult, there were four non-shrimp exposure vegetarians recruited for further analysis. Two recombinant allergens of dust mite (rDer p10) and shrimp (rPen m1) were generated to investigate their cross-reactivity. The cross-reactivity between shrimps and mites were determined by basophil histamine release (BHR) before and after allergen absorption. The results showed that there were more children sensitive to mite (91.7%) than to shrimp (28.3%). In the group of middle-age adult, the mite sensitivity rate was decreased to 56.6% and shrimp sensitivity rate increased to 73.3%. In the elderly adult, the mite sensitivity rate was decreased down to 46.6%, however the shrimp sensitivity remained constant (73.3%). The rates of cosensitivity to shrimp and mite were 26.6% in children group, 56.6% in middle-age adult group and 43% in elderly adult group. A total of 45 subjects who sensitized to both shrimp and mite were recruited for BHR assay. Similar results were observed in the BHR assay, the content of histamine stimulated by mites (69.3%) was significantly higher than shrimp (48.4%) in the children group. Converse results were showed in the elderly adult group, shrimp-stimulated BHR (61.0%) was significantly higher than mite (44.5%). In the inhibition BHR assay, the results showed the shrimp-stimulated BHR could be decreased significantly by absorption with Der p 10 in the children group. The mite-stimulated BHR could be absorbed significantly with Pen m1 in the elderly adult group. In the inhibition assay of Western blot and BHR, the positive IgE responses to shrimp could be absorbed by Der p10 from vegetarians’ sera. It indicated that the IgE positive response to shrimp of the vegetarians was originated from the cross-reactivity of tropomyosin from the dust mite-Der p10.
Hôtel-Dieu de France, Beirut, Lebanon
Dr Jacques Choucair got his MD degree in 1994 from the Saint-Joseph University, Faculty of Medicine in Beyrouth then his ID subspeciality from Paris VII University, School of Medicine
Since May 2001, he is a practitioner and ID consultant in the Infectious diseases department at Hôtel Dieu de France de Beyrouth teaching hospital.
He published more than 20 articles and is a reviewer in national and international journals. His main topics of interest are bacterial resistance and the proper use of antibiotics.
He is a member in the arab association for the proper use of antibiotics and member of ESCMID.
Objectives: To evaluate the knowledge of Lebanese women about cervical cancer (CC) and human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. To measure the uptake of the cervical cancer screening test (Pap smear) and the uptake of HPV vaccination, and determine the influencing factors.
Methods: 444 women with no medical background filled out a 32 item questionnaire. Collected data was analyzed in SPSS® v. 21.0.
Results:45.7% aged 18 to 25with high education qualifications (73.9%) and employed in a field not related to health (84.9%). They did not visit a general physician (64%) or a gynecologist (64.6%) regularly. 85.6% were aware of CC with a median CC symptom knowledge score of 3.00 ± 2.13. HPV infection involvement in the pathogenesis of CC was identified in 53.9% of cases. 35.6% of women were aware of HPV infection. The median HPV general knowledge score was 5.39 ± 2.38 and the median HPV vaccination score was 6.00 ± 2.41. 37.6% of participants had been screened by Pap smear for CC at least once in their lives whereas 9% did not know what a Pap smear was. Screening was significantly associated with CC awareness and regular visits to physicians. Only 11.7% of participants aged 18 to 35 were vaccinated against HPV. Vaccination uptake was significantly associated with CC awareness, religion, field of work and studies, and regular visits to gynecologists.
Conclusion: Lebanese women residing in the urban communities are not well informed about CC and HPV. Screening by Pap smear and HPV vaccination uptakes are non-satisfactory.
University of Liverpool,Saudi Arabia.
Professor at University of Liverpool,Makkah,Saudi Arabia.
CD56+ T cells previously have been identified as potentially cytotoxic lymphocytes, and relative numbers are increased in some infectious diseases.
PATIENTS AND METHODS:
Relative proportions of CD56+ T cells were measured by flow cytometry in groups of renal transplant patients differing in cytomegalovirus (CMV) status of donor (D) and recipient (R). These measurements were related to episodes of CMV viremia.
Patient groups in which recipients (R+) or donors (D+/R-) were CMV+ had significantly higher proportions of CD56+ T cells (5.11 ± 0.69% and 5.42 ± 1.01%, respectively) than the D-/R- group (1.9 ± 0.35%; P = 0.0018 and 0.017, respectively). In the high-risk D+/R- group, it was found that patients who had post-transplant CMV viremia had higher levels than those who remained CMV negative (9.09 ± 2.34% vs. 3.16 ± 1.22%; P = 0.01). CD56+ T cells from R+ and D+/R- groups had higher proportions of both CD4+ and CD8+ cells than the D-/R- group. When activation markers were examined, some CD56+ T cells from both CMV+ groups had a TEM phenotype, with significantly more expressing CD45RO and NKG2C, and less expressing CD28, CD62L, CD127, and CD161 compared to the D-/R- group. Some CD56+ T cells showed specificity for CMV antigens and similar proportions of CD8+ cells were positive for class I HLA-CMV tetramers containing immunodominant CMV peptides compared to the majority CD56- T cells.
The results show significant increases in proportions of CD56+ T cells in relation to CMV infection in renal transplant patients and suggest that these cells have a cytotoxic function against CMV-infected cells.
Rajiv Gandhi Centre for Biotechnology, India
Sabira Mohammed is currently pursuing her Doctoral degree and is working on finding the role played by Sphingosine Kinase 1 in endosomal TLR mediated innate immune response. She has done her Bachelors and Masters degree in Microbiology. Her research interests are immunology and autoimmune diseases.
Statement of the Problem: The body protects itself against the invading pathogens by mounting different strategies, collectively called as the immune responses. Toll like receptors (TLRs) recognise pathogens and are vital for innate immune response. The regulation of TLRs is not fully understood, the dysregulation of which can lead to autoimmune conditions. Sphingosine kinase 1 is an enigmatic enzyme that is involved in a myriad of cellular processes. The role of Sphingosine kinase 1 is speculated in TLR regulation. Methodology: The effect of Sphingosine kinase 1 in innate immune response is studied in vitro using CAL1 cell, a plasmacytoid dendritic cell line, primary cells and in vivo in C57Bl/6 mice . SphK1 is pharmacologically inhibited using SK1I. The response in the form of interferon and proinflammatory cytokine production is measured in the mRNA and protein level by Real time qPCR and ELISA. The effect of the inhibition on signalling components was studied by immunofluorescence and western blotting. The interaction between TLR and SphK1 was checked by immunofluorescence and western blotting. Findings: The inhibition of SphK1 was found to affect the innate immune response as measured by interferon and proinflammatory cytokine production. The effect of the inhibition on innate immune response was not mediated through cell death, but through the modulation of key cellular signaling pathways. SphK1 was found to colocalise with the endosomal TLRs. Conclusion & Significance: The study brings out the role of SphK1 in innate immune response from a plasmacytoid dendritic cell perspective. This points towards the potential of developing therapeutics based on SphK1 for treatment of autoimmune diseases, where there is aberrant TLR regulation.
Altigani aljafari was graduated from koedofan university,Faculty of medicine 2003.
He has completed MD Clinical Immunology,sudan medical specialization Board,January 2017.
Currently working as head department of clinical Immunology unit,in Omdurman Military Hospital and also the memeber of the organs transplant team,in omdurman Military Hospital.
Background : Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN) is a type of glomerulonephritis caused by deposits in the kidney glomerular mesangium and basement membrane thickening, activating complement and damaging the glomeruli .( MPGN) classified to 3 types according to location of deposits , and based on etiology categorized to secondary and idiopathic .
Objective: The aim of the study is to find the outcome of treatment (remission, partial remission, relapse and progress to end stage renal disease) of idiopathic membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis, among adult Sudanese patients presenting to Omdurman Military Hospital, Renal Unit.
Materials and Methods: A retrospective study of patients with idiopathic MPGN followed up at the clinic. Forty five patients with no identifiable cause of MPGN were included. Idiopathic (MPGN) patients who have high renal profile or nephrotic range treated by three doses of methylprednisolone 0.5 g intravenous in three consecutive days , and of corticosteroid tabs (0.5_1mg/kg/day), slowly withdrawn according to the patient response indicated by spot urine test .
Results : Out of forty five patients the following treatment outcomes were observed, (remission , partial remission , relapsed , and progressed
to (ESRD) ), ( 44% , 16% , 18% , 22% ) respectively .
Conclusions: In comparison to the similar studies, the remission rate is comparable, but the renal survival rate is different.